Constitutional Law / Droit constitutionnel
Georgia / Géorgie
The present chronicle observes the dynamics of the Constitution of Georgia as the key Law of the country. The introduction briefly describes the phases of its development starting from the adoption of the first Constitution of Georgia up to the present. The chronicle describes the Constitution in force that was approved in 1995. It details the General Provisions and each chapter separately, including the one on Human Rights and Freedoms. The constitutional norms regulating the three branches of the Government are also discussed. A separate part of the chronicle describes the authority of the President as the Head of the State. The chronicle focuses on the changes made to the Constitution after the so-called “Rose Revolution” of 2003 as a result of which the institution of the President has been significantly strengthened; along with this, the authority of the Parliament has materially been weakened. The chronicle also reviews the constitutional norms concerning the state finances, defense and the issues related to the review of the Constitution, including the recent changes discussed in the Transitional Provisions. The last part of the document concerns the work of the State Constitutional Commission created in 2009 under the special decree of the President. The goal of the Commission is to revise the Constitution. A brief review of the textbooks on the Constitutional Law published in 2009, referred to for the purposes of the present chronicle, is attached to the document.